Saturday, October 1, 2016

Madonnas attributed to Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519



Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Virgin & amp; Child with St Anne



Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) The Madonna of the Carnation



Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) Madonna



Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) Benois Madonna, 1478



Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Virgin and Child with St Anne



Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Virgin of the Rocks London



Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Virgin of the Rocks Louvre

In this blog, I try to begin each day with a painting of the Madonna & amp; Child. It centers me; connects me to the continuum of our shared past; & Amp; Encourages me to post some of the religious paintings Which were the core of early Western art. 

Friday, September 30, 2016

Karl Ferdinand Wimar (1828-1862) paints the 1776 abduction of Jemima, daughter of Daniel Boone


From Europe to the Atlantic coast of America & on to the Pacific coast during the 17C-19C, settlers moved West encountering a variety of Indigenous Peoples who had lived on the land for centuries.


Karl Ferdinand Wimar (1828-1862 a German painter of the American West was also known as Charles Wimar & Carl Wimar). Abduction of Boone's Daughter by the Indians

Jemima Boone & the Callaway girls were captured by a Cherokee-Shawnee raiding party. After the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775, violence increased between American Indians & settlers in Kentucky. American Indians, particularly Shawnee from north of the Ohio River, raided the Kentucky settlements, hoping to drive away the settlers, whom they regarded as trespassers. The Cherokee, led by Dragging Canoe, frequently attacked isolated settlers & hunters, convincing many to abandon Kentucky. This was part of a 20-year Cherokee resistance to pioneer settlement. By the late spring of 1776, fewer than 200 Americans remained in Kentucky, primarily at the fortified settlements of Boonesborough, Harrodsburg, & Logan's Station in the southeastern part of the state.

On July 14, 1776, a raiding party caught 3 teenage girls from Boonesborough, as they were floating in a canoe on the Kentucky River. They were Jemima, daughter of Daniel Boone, & Elizabeth & Frances, daughters of Colonel Richard Callaway. The Cherokee Hanging Maw led the raiders, 2 Cherokee & 3 Shawnee warriors. Boone organized a rescue party, as the captors hurried the girls north toward the Shawnee towns across the Ohio River. The 3rd morning, as the Indians were building a fire for breakfast, the rescuers arrived. As one Indian was shot, Jemima said, "That's Father's gun!" The Indians retreated, leaving the girls to be taken home by the settlers. The incident was portrayed in 19C literature & paintings. James Fenimore Cooper created a fictionalized version of the chase in The Last of the Mohicans (1826).

A German-born immigrant to the United States, Charles Wimar painted The Abduction of Daniel Boone's Daughter by the Indians while working in Düsseldorf with the famed history painter Emmanuel Leutze. Fascinated by the American frontier, Wimar focused during this period on images of Native American conflicts with settlers, in particular the theme of captivity & abduction, as portrayed here. This theme appeared widely in the popular literature & visual arts of the 18C & 19C, in which it was fashionable to mythologize the struggles of the frontier with exotic portrayals of the West & Native Americans. 

When he died from tuberculosis at the age of 34, he left about 50 paintings, Indians Approaching Fort Union, Flatboatmen on the Mississippi & The Abduction of Daniel Boone’s Daughter by the Indians among them. In 1843, he traveled to St. Louis, a fur-trading frontier town at the time. Between 1846 & 1850, he was apprenticed to the artist Leon de Pomarede, & accompanied him on a journey up the Mississippi, to St. Anthony Falls in Minnesota. In 1852, Wimar returned to Germany; & for 4 years, he studied with with Emmanuel Leutze & Josef Fay in Düsseldorf. After his return to the United States, Wimar took several journeys up the Mississippi River and, in 1858, up the Yellowstone River – documented in various sketchbooks.  

Wimar's paintings, like others of the time, reinforced notions of Native Americans as savage & white settlers as cultivated & divinely ordained - a notion that helped justify white colonization of the West. Inspired by Virginian Daniel Bryan's (ca. 1789–1866) 1st book, the 1813 epic poem The Mountain Muse, Wimar here depicted 3 natives seizing Jemima Boone as she picked wildflowers along the Kentucky River. Also drawing on traditional religious imagery, Wimar portrayed the captive young woman in the pose of a praying saint or martyr, further promoting the piety & innocence of Christian Europeans & the aggressiveness & barbarity of Native Americans.


Canadian Frontier in 19C - by Dutch-born Cornelius Krieghoff 1815-1872


Cornelius Krieghoff (Dutch-born Canadian painter, 1815-1872) Indian Woman Moccasin Seller

Cornelius Krieghoff 1815-1872 was born in Amsterdam, spent his formative years in Bavaria, & studied in Rotterdam & Dusseldorf. He traveled to the United States in the 1830s, where he served in the Army for a few years. He married a young woman from Quebec & moved to the Montreal area, where he painted genre paintings of the people & countryside of Canada. According to Charles C. Hill, Curator of Canadian Art at the National Gallery, "Krieghoff was the first Canadian artist to interpret in oils... the splendour of our waterfalls, & the hardships & daily life of people living on the edge of new frontiers." Krieghoff moved to Quebec from 1854-1863, before he came to Chicago to live with his daughter.


Gone Fishing - at a picnic in 1754 Annapolis, Maryland


Fishing in the British American colonies was a social sport, & the outcome was as unpredictable then as it is nowadays. This poem appeared in the 1754 Maryland Gazette about preparing a list of items to take on a picnic & fishing trip on the Severn River in Annapolis.


18C English woodcut

Six bottle of wine, right old, good and clear;
a dozen at least, of English strong Beer:
Six quarts of good Rum, to make Punch and Grogg
(the latter a Drink that’s now much vogue)
some Cyder, if sweet, would not be amiss:
Of Butter Six pounds, we can’t do with less.

A tea Kettle, Tea, and all the Tea Geer,
To treat the Ladies and also small Beer.
Sugar, Lemons, a Strainer, likewise a Spoon;
Two China Bowls to drink out of at Noon:
A large piece of Cheese, a Table Cloth too,
A sauce-pan, two Dishes, and a Corkscrew:
Some Plates, Knives and Forks, Fish Kettle or pot,
And pipes and Tobacco must not be forgot:
A frying pan, Bacon or Lard for to Fry:
a tumbler and Glass to use when we’re dry
A hatchet, some Matches, a Steel and a Flint,
Some touch-wood, or Box with good tinder in’t.
some vinegar, Salt, some Parsley and Bread
or else Loaves of Pone to eat in it’s stead:
and for fear of bad Luck at catching of Fish
Suppose we should carry- A READY DRESSED DISH



Madonnas attributed to Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio Italian High Renaissance painter, ca.1466-1516



Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Italian High Renaissance painter, ca.1466-1516) Virgin and Child



Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Italian High Renaissance painter, ca.1466-1516) Virgin and Child



Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Italian High Renaissance painter, ca.1466-1516) Virgin and Child



Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Italian High Renaissance painter, ca.1466-1516) and Leonardo da Vinci (perhaps both worked on this image) Mother and Child



Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Italian High Renaissance painter, ca.1466-1516) Madonna and Child



Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Italian High Renaissance painter, ca.1466-1516) Virgin and Child attributed to a follower of



Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Italian High Renaissance painter, ca.1466-1516) Madonna and Child



Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Italian High Renaissance painter, ca.1466-1516) The Holy Family



attributed to Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Italian High Renaissance painter, ca.1466-1516) Virgin and Child



attributed to Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Italian High Renaissance painter, ca.1466-1516) Virgin and Child



attributed to Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Italian High Renaissance painter, ca.1466-1516) Virgin and Child

In this blog, I try to begin each day with a painting of the Madonna & Child. It centers me; connects me to the past; & encourages me to post some of the religious paintings which were a large part of the core of early Western art.  In the 4C, as the Christian population was rapidly growing & was now supported by the state, Christian art evolved & became grander to suit new, enlarged public spaces & the changing contemporary tastes of elite private clients.


Thursday, September 29, 2016

Karl Ferdinand Wimar (1828-1862) paints the 1776 abduction of Jemima, daughter of Daniel Boone


From Europe to the Atlantic coast of America & on to the Pacific coast during the 17C-19C, settlers moved West encountering a variety of Indigenous Peoples who had lived on the land for centuries.


Karl Ferdinand Wimar (1828-1862 a German painter of the American West was also known as Charles Wimar & Carl Wimar). Abduction of Boone's Daughter by the Indians

Jemima Boone & the Callaway girls were captured by a Cherokee-Shawnee raiding party. After the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775, violence increased between American Indians & settlers in Kentucky. American Indians, particularly Shawnee from north of the Ohio River, raided the Kentucky settlements, hoping to drive away the settlers, whom they regarded as trespassers. The Cherokee, led by Dragging Canoe, frequently attacked isolated settlers & hunters, convincing many to abandon Kentucky. This was part of a 20-year Cherokee resistance to pioneer settlement. By the late spring of 1776, fewer than 200 Americans remained in Kentucky, primarily at the fortified settlements of Boonesborough, Harrodsburg, & Logan's Station in the southeastern part of the state.

On July 14, 1776, a raiding party caught 3 teenage girls from Boonesborough, as they were floating in a canoe on the Kentucky River. They were Jemima, daughter of Daniel Boone, & Elizabeth & Frances, daughters of Colonel Richard Callaway. The Cherokee Hanging Maw led the raiders, 2 Cherokee & 3 Shawnee warriors. Boone organized a rescue party, as the captors hurried the girls north toward the Shawnee towns across the Ohio River. The 3rd morning, as the Indians were building a fire for breakfast, the rescuers arrived. As one Indian was shot, Jemima said, "That's Father's gun!" The Indians retreated, leaving the girls to be taken home by the settlers. The incident was portrayed in 19C literature & paintings. James Fenimore Cooper created a fictionalized version of the chase in The Last of the Mohicans (1826).

A German-born immigrant to the United States, Charles Wimar painted The Abduction of Daniel Boone's Daughter by the Indians while working in Düsseldorf with the famed history painter Emmanuel Leutze. Fascinated by the American frontier, Wimar focused during this period on images of Native American conflicts with settlers, in particular the theme of captivity & abduction, as portrayed here. This theme appeared widely in the popular literature & visual arts of the 18C & 19C, in which it was fashionable to mythologize the struggles of the frontier with exotic portrayals of the West & Native Americans. 

When he died from tuberculosis at the age of 34, he left about 50 paintings, Indians Approaching Fort Union, Flatboatmen on the Mississippi & The Abduction of Daniel Boone’s Daughter by the Indians among them. In 1843, he traveled to St. Louis, a fur-trading frontier town at the time. Between 1846 & 1850, he was apprenticed to the artist Leon de Pomarede, & accompanied him on a journey up the Mississippi, to St. Anthony Falls in Minnesota. In 1852, Wimar returned to Germany; & for 4 years, he studied with with Emmanuel Leutze & Josef Fay in Düsseldorf. After his return to the United States, Wimar took several journeys up the Mississippi River and, in 1858, up the Yellowstone River – documented in various sketchbooks.  

Wimar's paintings, like others of the time, reinforced notions of Native Americans as savage & white settlers as cultivated & divinely ordained - a notion that helped justify white colonization of the West. Inspired by Virginian Daniel Bryan's (ca. 1789–1866) 1st book, the 1813 epic poem The Mountain Muse, Wimar here depicted 3 natives seizing Jemima Boone as she picked wildflowers along the Kentucky River. Also drawing on traditional religious imagery, Wimar portrayed the captive young woman in the pose of a praying saint or martyr, further promoting the piety & innocence of Christian Europeans & the aggressiveness & barbarity of Native Americans.


Moving West - Food Needed for a Wagon Trip Across Country



Randolph B. Marcy. A Hand-Book for Overland Expeditions. Harper and Brothers, New York 1859

"Supplies for a march should be put up in the most secure, compact, and portable shape. Bacon should be packed in strong sacks of a hundred pounds to each; or, in very hot climates, put in boxes and surrounded with bran, which in a great measure prevents the fat from melting away. If pork be used, in order to avoid transporting about forty per cent. Of useless weight, it should be taken out of the barrels and packed like bacon; then so placed in the bottom of the wagons as to keep it cool. The pork, if well cured, will keep several months in this way, but bacon is preferable.


"Flour should be packed in stout double canvas sacks well sewed, a hundred pounds in each sack. Butter may be preservd by boiling it thoroughly, and skimming off the scum as it rises to the top until it is quite clear like oil. It is then placed in tin canisters and soldered up. This mode of preserving butter has been adopted in the hot climate of southern Texas, and it is found to keep sweet for a great length of time, and its flavor is but little impaired by the process. Sugar may be well secured in India-rubber or gutta-percha sacks, or so placed in the wagon as not to risk getting wet.

"Dessicated or dried vegetables are almost equal to the fresh, and ar put up in such a compact an portable form as easily to be transported over the plains. They have been extensively used in the Crimean war, and by our own army in Utah, and have been very generally approved. They are prepared by cutting the fresh vegetables into thin slices and subjecting them to a very powerful press, which removes the juice and leaves a solid cake, which, after having been thoroughly dried in an oven, becomes almost hard as a rock. A small piece of this, about half the size of a man's hand, when boiled, swells up so as to fill a vegetable dish, and is sufficient for four men. It is believed that the antiscorbutic properties of vegetables are not impaired by dessication, and they will keep for years if not exposed to dampness. Canned vegetables are very good for campaigning, but are not so portable as when put up in the other form. The dessicated vegetables used in our army have been prepared by Chollet and Co., 46 Rue Richer, Paris.


"There is an agency for them in New York. I regard these compressed vegetables as the best preparation for prairie traveling that has yet been discovered. A single ration weights, before boiling, only an ounce, and a cubic yard contains 16,000 rations. In making up their outfit for the plains, men are very prone to overload their teams with a great variety of useless articles. It is a good rule to carry nothing more than is absolutely necessary for use upon the journey. One can not expect, with the limited allowance of transportation that emigrants usually have, to indulge in luxuries upon such expeditions, and articles for use in California can be purchased there at less cost than that of overland transport.

"The allowance of provisions for men in marching should be much greater than when they take no exercise. The army ration I have always found insufficient for soldiers who perform hard service, yet it is ample for them when in quarters. The following table shows the amount of subsistence consumed per day by each man of Dr. Rae's party, in his spring journey to the Arctic regions of North America in 1854:
"Pemmican.....1.25 lbs
Biscuit.....0.25 lbs
Edward's preserved potatoes....0.10 lbs
Flour.....0.33 lbs
Tea.....0.03 lb
Sugar.....0.14 lb
Grease or alcohol, for cooking.....0.25 lb

"This allowance of a little over two pounds of the most nutritious food was found barely sufficient to subsist the men in that cold climate. The pemmican, which constitutes almost the entire diet of the Fur Company's men in the Northwest, is prepared as follows: The buffalo meat is cut into thin flakes, and hung up to dry in the sun or before a slow fire; it is then pounded between two stone and reduced to a powder; this powder is placed in a bag of the animal's hide, with the hair on the outside; melted grease is then poured into it, and the bag sewn up. It can be eaten raw, and many prefer it so. Mixed with a little four and boiled, it is a very wholesome and exceedingly nutritious food, and will keep fresh for a long time.

"I would advise all persons who travel for any considerable time through a country where they can procure no vegetables to carry with them some antiscorbutics, and if they can not transport dessicated or canned vegetables, citric acid answers a good purpose, and is very portable. When mixed with sugar and water, with a few drops of the essence of lemon, it is difficult to distinguish it from lemonade. Wild onions are excellent as antiscorbutics; also wild grapes and greens. An infusion of hemlock leaves is also said to be an antidote to scurvy.

"The most portable and simple preparation of subsistence that I know of, and which is used extensively by the Mexicans and Indians, is called "cold flour." It is made by parching corn, and pounding it in a mortar to the consistency of coarse meal; a little sugar and cinnamon added makes it quite palatable. When the traveler becomes hungry or thirsty, a little of the flour is mixed with water and drunk. It is an excellent article for a traveler who desires to go the greatest length of time upon the smallest amoung ot transportation. It is said that half a bushel is sufficient to subsists a man thirty days


"Persons undergoing severe labor, and driven to great extremities for food, will derive sustenance from various sources that would never occur to them under ordinary circumstances. In passing over the Rocky Mountains during the winter of 1857-8, our supplies of provisions were enterely consumed in eighteen days before reaching the first settlements in New Mexico, and we were obliged to resort to a variety of expedients to supply the deficiency. Our poor mules were fast failing and dropping down from exhaustion in the deep snows, and our only dependence for the means of sustaining life was upon these starved animals as they became unserviceable and could go no farther. We had no salt, sugar, coffee, or tobacco, which, at a time when men are performing the severest labor that the human system is capable of enduring, was a great privation...

"A decoction of the dried wild or horsemint, which we found abundant under the snow, was quite palatable, and answered instead of coffee. It dries up in that climate, but does not lose its flavor. We suggered greatly for the want of salt; but, by burining the outside of our mule steaks, and sprinkling a little gunpowder on them, it did not require a very extensive stretch of the imagination to fancy the presence of both salt and pepper. We tried the meat of horse, colt, and mules, all of which were in a starved condition, and of course not very tender, juicy, or nutritious. We consumed the enoumous amount of five to six pounds of this meat per man daily, but continued to grow weak and thin, until, at the expiration of twelve days, we were able to perform but little labor, and were continually craving for fat meat.


"The allowance of provisions for each grown person, to make the journey from the Missouri River to California, should suffice for 110 days. The following is deemed requisite, viz.: 150 lbs of flour or its equivalent in hard bread; 25 lbs. Of bacon or pork, and enough fresh beef to be driven on the hoof to make up the meat component of the ration; 15 lbs. of coffee, and 25 lbs. of sugar; also a quantity or saleratus or yeast powders for making bread, and salt and pepper.

"These are the chief articles of subsistence necessary for the trip, and they should be used with economy, reserving a good portion for the western half of the journey. Heretofore many of the California emigrants have improvidently exhausted their stocks of provisions before reaching their journey's and, and have, in many cases, been obliged to pay the most exorbinant prices in makign up the deficiency. It is true that if persons choose to pass through Salt Lake City, and the Mormons happen to be in an amicable mood, supplies may sometimes be procured from them; but those who have visited them well know how little reliance is to be placed upon their hospitality or spirit of accomodation.

"I once traveled with a party of New Yorkers en route for California. They were perfectly ignorant of every thing relating to this kind of campaigning, and have overloaded their wagons with almost every thing except the very articles most important and necessary; the consequence was, that they exhausted their teams, and were obliged to throw aways the greater part of their loading. They soon learned that Champagne, East India sweetmeats, olives, etc, were not the most useful articles for a prairie tour."
.

Gone Fishing - in 18C American public pleasure gardens


Fishing 18C in England - 1794 Benjamin West (American-born artist, 1738-1820) A Party of Gentlemen fishing from a Punt


By the last quarter of the 18C, some American public pleasure gardens &  taverns catered to the sports-minded on a year round basis. Many sports gardens evolved near the sites of old colonial favorite fishing haunts, some near shoreline taverns which had offered weary sportsmen cooling refreshments for decades.

Unfortunately I have no 18C images of sport fishing on the American side of the Atlantic, so I must use British images. 

Fishing 18C in England - 1750 Francis Popham (1734 to 1780) by an unknown artist of the British School

Sport fishing, or angling, as distinguished from commercial fishing, usually it involved using a fishing rod &; line & hook rather than large nets. An Egyptian angling scene of about 2000 BC shows figures with fishing rods & lines & nets. A Chinese account of about the 4BC refers to fishing with a silk line, a hook made from a needle, & a bamboo rod, using cooked rice as bait. One of man's earliest tools was the predecessor of the fishhook, the gorge.

Fishing 18C in England - 1749 Arthur Devis (Inglese artist, 1712-1787) Portrait of an Unknown Boy Fishing, Possibly Christopher Lethieullier

The practice of attaching the line to a rod, at first probably stick or tree branch, made ​​it possible to fish from the bank or shore & reach over vegetation bordering the water. Our knowledge of the history of sport fishing in England Began with the printing of Treatyse of Fysshynge With an Angle (1496).


18C English woodcut

As early as 1704, Pennsylvanian Gabriel Wilkinson recognized the commercial potential of His waterside location and petitioned the Philadelphia Mayor's Court to open a tavern on his property. He argued that since it was "nearly fishing time," there would be a "necessity" for a public tavern "Because the fishermen always come ashore at my house."

Fishing in 18C England - woodcut

The Reverend Mr. Burnaby, who visited New York City about 1748, reported: "The amusements are balls and sleighing expeditions in the winter, and in the summer going to parties upon the water and fishing, or making excursions into the country. There are several houses, pleasantly situated up the East River, near New York, where it is common to have turtle feasts. These happen once or twice a week. Thirty or forty gentlemen and ladies, meet and dine together, drink tea in the afternoon, fish and amuse Themselves till evening, and then return home for Italian chaises (the carriage in this fashionable and most parts of America), a gentleman and the lady in each chaise. "

Fishing 18C in England - 1750 Arthur Devis (Inglese artist, 1712-1787) The Young Waltonian

In 1752, John Watson was keeping the Ferry House on Staten Island. That year in December of "Whale 45 feet in length ran ashore at Van Buskirk's Point at the entrance of the Kills from our Bay, where, being discovered by People from Staten Island, a number of them went off and Killed him." 


Three youth fishing in 1754

Mr. Watson states in an advertisement in the New York Gazette of December 11, 1752, hat this whale may be seen at his house. This announcement may have induced many to make the trip across the bay to see the whale & add to the profits of John Watson's tavern.

Family Fishing 18C in England - John and Elizabeth Jeffreys and The Children by William Hogarth c 1730

As settlers from England were sailing to the American Atlantic region in the mid-17C, Izaak Walton & Charles Cotton were writing the classic The Compleat Angler; & Col. Robert Venables & Thomas Barker were describing new tackle & methods of fishing. Experiments with material for the line included the use of a gut string (Mentioned by diarist Samuel Pepys in 1667) & of a lute string (Noted by Robert Venables in 1676).

Teaching the children to fish in 18C England - 1770s Arthur Devis (Inglese artist, 1712-1787) Richard Moretan Esq of Tackley With His niece and nephew John and Susanna Weyland

The early reel consisted of a wooden spool with a metal ring that fitted over the angler's thumb. By 1770, a rod with guides for the line along its length & a reel was in common use. The first true geared reel attached under the rod, where one turn of the handle the spool moved through several revolutions. Such reels became the prototype of the bait-casting reel as devised by 2 Kentucky watchmakers in the early 1800s.

Family Fishing in 18C England - Charles Philips (British artist, 1703-1747) The Russell and Revett Families with Fishing Rods

During the 1790s, the proprietor of Spring Gardens in Baltimore, Mr. Fletcher, built a house on the grounds to accommodate fishing parties. These "gardens" were to proposed to serve as a place of resort & pleasant retreat for gentlemen who were fond of angling and eager to escape the city and women, who were not invited.

18C English woodcut

Sitting on Maryland waters in the 1790s, Toon's Pleasure Gardens offered tea as well as fishing & amp; "rural sports" to both ladies and gentlemen. While the gentleman and his lady were fishing in the Baltimore basin, they could sight-see as well. Chelsea or Toon's Pleasure Garden , built around 1790, was situated about 2 miles down river from Baltimore with a "delightful and captivating" view of the elegant gardens at the country seat of Captain John O'Donnell called Canton. An English traveler visiting Canton in 1799 Reported That the house had "a very handsome garden, in great order" as well as a hothouse and a greenhouse.


Family Fishing 18C in England - Arthur Devis (Inglese artist, 1712-1787) The Family of Fencroft Swaine, Cambridgeshire in 1749

Toon's Garden anche boasted good views of both Baltimore Town & the Chesapeake Bay and was noted for the "salubrity of its air and elegant situation." Contemporaries noted That "during the summer months a great concourse of citizens make excursions by land and water to These Gardens, where every accommodation is provided, with all kinds of refreshments. "  John Toon advertised in a local newspaper in the spring of 1795, that guests to his garden could watch the "captivating" progress of the building of "the Federal frigate" in nearby David Stodder's shipyard. During this period, Toon was attempting to improve the land access by horse, internships, and foot to His commercial gardens which were originally primarily reached by boat.

At Toon's, Both ladies and gentlemen were encouraged to try their hand at fishing while enjoying the best of liquors, tea, coffee, & syllabub. Lady anglers did not dress down for the sport; quite to the contrary, they dressed in their finest to spend an afternoon fishing and hoping to be noticed.


Fishing on the water at 18C England - Joseph Farington (British artist, 1747-1821) The Fishing Party

One 18th-century Englishman Observed of the female anglers,


Silks of all colors must Their aid impart,
And ev'ry fur Promote the fisher's art.
I know the gay lady, with expensive care,
Borrows the pride of land, of sea, and air;
Furs, pearls, and plumes, the glittering thing displays
Dazels our eyes, hearts and easy Betrays.



Madonnas attributed to Martino Altomonte Austrian-born Italian painter, 1657–1745


Martino Altomonte, born Johann Martin Hohenberg (Austrian-born Italian painter, 1657–1745) Rest on the Flight into Egypt



Martino Altomonte, born Johann Martin Hohenberg (Austrian-born Italian painter, 1657–1745) The Immaculate Conception


Martino Altomonte, born Johann Martin Hohenberg (Austrian-born Italian painter, 1657–1745) The Holy Family



Martino Altomonte, born Johann Martin Hohenberg (Austrian-born Italian painter, 1657–1745) Madonna and Child


Martino Altomonte, born Johann Martin Hohenberg (Austrian-born Italian painter, 1657–1745) Anna lehrt Maria, daneben der hl. Joachim

In this blog, I try to begin each day with a painting of the Madonna & Child. It centers me; connects me to the past; & encourages me to post some of the religious paintings which were a large part of the core of early Western art.  In the 4C, as the Christian population was rapidly growing & was now supported by the state, Christian art evolved & became grander to suit new, enlarged public spaces & the changing contemporary tastes of elite private clients.


Wednesday, September 28, 2016

1764 Native Americans from Pontiac's Rebellion meeting with the British who had tried to infect them all with Smallpox in 1763


From Europe to the Atlantic coast of America & on to the Pacific coast during the 17C-19C, settlers moved West encountering a variety of Indigenous Peoples who had lived on the land for centuries.


Charles Grignion I (English engraver, 1717–1810) after Benjamin West (American, 1738-1820)  Indians giving a talk to Colonel Bouquet in a conference at a council fire, near his camp on the banks of Muskingum Oct. 1764

Pontiac's Rebellion & early Biological Warfare

Pontiac's Rebellion was a war launched in 1763 by North American Indians who were dissatisfied with British policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French & Indian War/Seven Years' War (1754–1763). The conflict is named after its most famous participant, the Ottawa leader Pontiac. Warriors from numerous tribes joined the uprising in an effort to drive British soldiers & settlers out of the region. 

Contributing to the outbreak of war was a religious awakening sweeping through Indian settlements in the early 1760s. The movement was fed by discontent with the British as well as food shortages & epidemic disease. Neolin, known as the "Delaware Prophet," who called upon Indians to shun the trade goods, alcohol, & weapons of the whites. Merging elements from Christianity into traditional religious beliefs, Neolin told listeners that the Master of Life was displeased with the Indians for taking up the bad habits of the white men, & that the British posed a threat to their very existence. "If you suffer the English among you," said Neolin, "you are dead men. Sickness, smallpox, & their poison [alcohol] will destroy you entirely."

The war began in May 1763 when American Indians, alarmed by policies imposed by British General Jeffrey Amherst, attacked a number of British forts & settlements. Eight forts were destroyed, & hundreds of colonists were killed or captured, with many more fleeing the region. Hostilities came to an end after British Army expeditions in 1764 led to peace negotiations over the next 2 years. The Indians were unable to drive away the British but did prompt the British government to modify the policies tward the Native Americans.

Colonists in western Pennsylvania fled to the safety of Fort Pitt after the outbreak of the war. Nearly 550 people crowded inside, including more than 200 women & children.  Simeon Ecuyer, the Swiss-born British officer in command, wrote that "We are so crowded in the fort that I fear disease…; the smallpox is among us." Fort Pitt was attacked on June 22, 1763, primarily by Delawares. 

For Amherst, who before the war had dismissed the possibility that the Indians would offer any effective resistance to British rule, the military situation over the summer became increasingly grim. He wrote his subordinates, instructing them that captured enemy Indians should "immediately be put to death." To Colonel Henry Bouquet at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, who was preparing to lead an expedition to relieve Fort Pitt, Amherst made the following proposal on about June 29, 1763: "Could it not be contrived to send the small pox among the disaffected tribes of Indians? We must on this occasion use every stratagem in our power to reduce them." 

Bouquet agreed, replying to Amherst on July 13: "I will try to inoculate the bastards with some blankets that may fall into their hands, & take care not to get the disease myself." Amherst responded favorably on July 16: "You will do well to inoculate the Indians by means of blankets, as well as every other method that can serve to extirpate this execrable race." 

As it turned out, officers at the besieged Fort Pitt had already attempted to do what Amherst & Bouquet were still discussing, apparently without having been ordered to do so by Amherst or Bouquet. During a parley at Fort Pitt on June 24, 1763, Ecuyer gave representatives of the besieging Delawares two blankets & a handkerchief that had been exposed to smallpox, hoping to spread the disease to the Indians in order to end the siege. This was not the first time that a crude form of biological warfare had been attempted in the region: in 1761, American Indians had attempted to poison the well at Fort Ligonier using an animal carcass.

It is uncertain whether the British successfully infected the Indians. Because many American Indians died from smallpox during Pontiac's Rebellion, some historians concluded that the attempt was successful, but many scholars now doubt that conclusion. One reason is that the outbreak of smallpox among the Ohio Indians apparently preceded the blanket incident. Furthermore, the Indians outside Fort Pitt kept up the siege for more than a month after receiving the blankets, apparently unaffected by any outbreak of disease. The 2 Delaware chiefs who handled the blankets were in good health a month later as well.  Because the disease was already in the area, it may have reached Indian villages through a number of vectors. Eyewitnesses reported that native warriors contracted the disease after attacking infected white settlements, & they may have spread the disease upon their return home. 

The ruthlessness of the conflict was a reflection of a growing racial divide between British colonists & American Indians. The British government sought to prevent further racial violence by issuing the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which created a boundary between colonists & Indians.

Artist Benjamin West

Benjamin West (1738-1820) was the 10th child of a rural innkeeper in Springfield, Pennsylvania, in October, 1738, & died exaulted in London, in March, 1820. Before his ascension to historical allegory painter for English royalty, he began learning his craft as a humble portraitist in Philadelphia. West told John Galt, his biographer, that when he was a child, Native Americans showed him how to make paint by mixing some clay from the river bank with bear grease in a pot.

During his years painting in the British American colonies, his portraits exhibit a modest attempt to emulate the baroque & rococo styles, which he probably observed in Philadelphia. His modest American portrait compositions also exhibit some knowledge of English mezzotint portraits reflecting the works of Peter Lely (1618–160) & Godfrey Kneller (1646–1723). West told a friend that a "Mr. Hide (Haidt), a German," gave him instruction. Johann Valentine Haidt (1700-1780), a Moravian evangelist & trained artist, painted not just portraits, but also history & religious paintings. Apparently, Benjamin West became determined to paint inspiring historical & religious compositions as well.

He later wrote, "Most undoubtedly had not (I) been settled in Philadelphia I should not have embraced painting as a profession." However, his early move away from Philadelphia to England was necessary for him to work in a country where artists were commissioned to paint inspiring depictions of history's real & imagined indispensable men & women who made extreme sacrifices & performed noble deeds. In the American colonies, the gentry paid for portraits, not inspiration.

Benjamin West became a painter of historical scenes, sometimes including Native Americans, around & after the time of the American War of Independence & the Seven Years' War. During his 22 years in America, he was a fairly typical provincial artist; but his choice to leave the colonies in 1760, for Europe & England led to his appointment as the official painter at the court of King George III & to his becoming co-founder of the Royal Academy in London, where 3 generations of fellow American students would return home from his tutelage to impact the art of the emerging republic.


Gone Fishing - in 1600s England



Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677) Angling


Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677) River Fishing


Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677) Salmon Fishing