Saturday, March 28, 2015

Planting the 15C Garden


The Four Seasons - Lente (Spring) From a series of four plates (Hollstein 1404-1407) plates originally published by Assuerus van Londerseel.


17C Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677)


Wenceslaus Hollar (Czech artist, 1607-1677)  'Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus. The severall 'Habits of Englishwomen, from the Nobilitie to the 'Country Woman, as they are in these times. 1640.'  An English lady standing whole length in three-quarter profile to right; wearing a lace-trimmed cap, shoulder wrap with scalloped double lace edge, fastened with a bow, gloves, and dark gown with light piece of fabric added to the front.

We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 

The artist Hollar was born in 1607, the son of an upper middle-class civic official. He left his native Prague at age 20. He was almost blind in one eye but became a skilled artist. His 1st book of etchings was published in 1635, in Cologne, when Hollar was 28. The following year his work caught they eye of English art collector the Earl of Arundel who visiting the continent.  Hollar became a part of his household, settling in England early in 1637. He left London for Antwerp in 1642, where he continued to work on a variety of projects for 10 years.  In 1652, he returned to England, working on a number of large projects for the publishers John Ogilby & William Dugdale. Hollar died in London in 1677. By his life's end, he had produced nearly 3000 separate etchings.


Morning Madonna


William Dyce (Scottish painter, 1806–1864) Madonna and Child

In this blog, I try to begin each day with a painting of the Madonna & Child. It centers me; connects me to the past; & encourages me to post some of the religious paintings which were the core of early Western art.


Friday, March 27, 2015

Lovers in a 15C Garden


1450-67 Master ES Two Lovers in a Garden sitting on a raised bed

Here we see a garden bed raised to prevent plants becoming waterlogged, & grass treated as a flowery mead planted with low growing wild flowers plus a clever castle-design flower pot.  A bird looks on, & the gentleman wears pointy-to-the-extreme shoes.


17C Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677)


Wenceslaus Hollar (Czech artist, 1607-1677)  'Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus. The severall 'Habits of Englishwomen, from the Nobilitie to the 'Country Woman, as they are in these times. 1640.' An English lady standing whole length to left, looking to left; wearing a cap and shoulder wrap with scalloped edge, dark gown with ornate broad sleeves and light apron; holding a pair of gloves in her right hand.

We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 

The artist Hollar was born in 1607, the son of an upper middle-class civic official. He left his native Prague at age 20. He was almost blind in one eye but became a skilled artist. His 1st book of etchings was published in 1635, in Cologne, when Hollar was 28. The following year his work caught they eye of English art collector the Earl of Arundel who visiting the continent.  Hollar became a part of his household, settling in England early in 1637. He left London for Antwerp in 1642, where he continued to work on a variety of projects for 10 years.  In 1652, he returned to England, working on a number of large projects for the publishers John Ogilby & William Dugdale. Hollar died in London in 1677. By his life's end, he had produced nearly 3000 separate etchings.


Morning Madonna



Anders Leonard Zorn (Swedish painter, 1860–1920) Madonna

In this blog, I try to begin each day with a painting of the Madonna & Child. It centers me; connects me to the past; & encourages me to post some of the religious paintings which were the core of early Western art.


Thursday, March 26, 2015

Early America - Planning an 18C Garden with Martha Daniell Logan 1704-1779 South Carolina Gardener & Teacher



Richard Houston (Irish printmaker, c.1721-1775) An image of an 18C woman gardening

Martha Daniell Logan (1704-1779), colonial teacher and gardener, was born in St. Thomas Parish, S.C., the 2nd child of Robert Daniell and his second wife, Martha Wainwright.  Her father, who may originally have been a Virginian, had arrived in South Carolina from Barbados in 1679; already propertied, he increased his holdings in real estate, slaves, and ships over the years. In 1704 and 1705, he had a stormy term as lieutenant governor of North Carolina; and he served twice in the same capacity in South Carolina from 1715 through 1717.

Nothing is known of his daughter Martha’s education, but it surely consisted of reading and writing English along with the skills of needlework. Her childhood was not prolonged. In May 1718, when she was 13, her father died; and on July 30, of the following year she was married to George Logan, Jr. At about the same time her mother married the senior Logan, an Aberdeen Scot who, like Daniell, had held offices of trust in the province.

The younger Logans spent their early married years on a plantation some 10 miles up the Wando River from Charles Town, on land which Martha had inherited from her father. There, between 1720 and 1736, eight children were born to them: George, Martha, Robert Daniell (who died as a child in 1726), William, John, Frances, Anne, and finally another Robert who also died before reaching adulthood.

As early as Mar. 20, 1742, Martha Logan advertised in the South Carolina Gazette that she would board students who would be “taught to read and write, also to work plain Work Embroidery, tent and cut work for 120 l. a year,” at her house up Wando River. 

Twelve years later, after she had removed to Charles Town, the Gazette of Aug. 4, 1754, carried her proposal for a boarding school in which a master of writing and arithmetic would supplement her instruction in reading, drawing, and needlework. Tradition had it that she also managed the Logan plantation, though this is less certain, as her husband did not die until July 1, 1764.  Her first advertisement for a school did, however, offer for sale the home estate and other properties, an offer which she repeated on Mar. 13, 1749, when she announced that she acted as attorney for her son George Logan of Cape Fear.


 
Nicolas Bonnart I (French printer, c 1637-1718) An image of a 17C lady interested in gardening

She is best known for her interest in horticulture. She is assumed to be the “Lady of this Province” whose “Gardener’s Kalendar” was published in John Tobler’s South Carolina Almanack for 1752, according to the South Carolina Gazette of Dec. 6, 1751.  Here is her Kalendar from 1756.

Tobler's South Carolina Almanack of 1756.

Directions for Managing a Kitchen Garden every month of the year Done by a Lady

January

Plant peas and Beans: Sow Spinage for Use and for Seed: that which is preserved for Seed
must never be cut: a small Quantity will yield plentifully in rich ground. Sow Cabbage for
Summer Use, when they are fit transplant them into rich Earth. Sow Parsley. Transplant
Artichokes into very rich mellow Ground and they will bear in the Fall. This month all kinds
of Fruit-Trees may be Transplanted.

February

Sow Celery, Cucumbers, Melons, Kidney-Beans, Spinage, Asparagus, Radish. Parsley, Lettice,
to be transplanted in shady Places: they must be moved young and watered every Morning:
Pond or Rain Water is the best. If the season does not prove too wet, this Month is best for
planting all Sorts of Trees, except the Fig, which should not be moved 'til March, when the
suckers may be taken from the Roots of old Trees. The Fig will not bear pruning. The
middle of this Month is the best for Grafting in the Cleft. If Fruit-Trees have not been
pruned last Month, they must not be delayed longer. About the Middle of this Month, sow
Spinage, Radish, Parsley and Lettice for the last time. Plant Dwarf and Hotspur Pease. Sow
Onions, Carrots and Parsnips; and plant out Carrots, Parsnips, Cabbage and Onions, for
Seed the next Year. Plant Hops, Strawberries, and all kinds of aromatic Herbs

March

Whatever was neglected last Month, may be done in this, with good Sue. cess, if it is not too
dry; if it be, you must water more frequently. Now plant Rounceval Pease and all manner of
Kidney Beans.

April

Continue to plant aromatic Herbs Rosemary, Thyme, Lavender etc. and be careful to weed
and water what was formerly planted. Lettice, Spinage and all kinds of Salading may be
planted to use all the Summer but they must be frequently watered and shaded from the Sun.

May

This month is chiefly for weeding and watering: Nothing sown or planted does well.

June

Clip Evergreens, and Herbs for drying, Thyme, Sage, Carduus, Rosemary, Lavender, etc. Sow
Carrots, Parsnips and Cabbage. If the Weather is dry and hot the Ground must be well
watered, after being dug deep and made mellow. Straw or Stable Litter well wetted and laid
pretty thick upon the Beds where Seeds are sown, in the Heat of the Day, and taken off at
Night is a good expedient to forward the Growth.

July

What was done last Month may also be done this. Continue to water, in the evening only.
The latter end of this Month sow Pease for the Fall. Water such things as are going to seed,
is being very needful to preserve good Seed. Turnips and Onions may be sown; Leeks,
scallions and all of this Tribe planted.

August

Sow Turneps and another crop of Hotspur or Dwarf Pease. Still Continue to weed and water
as before.

September

Showers of Rain will be frequent. Now prepare the ground for the following Seeds viz.
Spinage, Dutch brown Lettice, Endive, and other crop of Pease and Beans. Now you may
inoculate with Buds.



The the calendar and a variant version appeared often in South Carolina and Georgia almanacs into the 1780’s.

The Pennsylvania botanist John Bartram met Martha Logan briefly in 1760; and, at least through 1765, they carried on an eager exchange of letters, seeds, and plants. “Her garden is her delight,” wrote Bartram to his London correspondent Peter Collinson.

It was also a source of income. The South Carolina Gazette of Nov. 5, 1753, gave notice that Daniel (Robert Daniell) Logan sold imported seeds, flower roots, and fruit stones at his “mother’s house on the Green near Trotts point,” but perhaps because of his death the nursery business soon passed into Martha Logan’s hands, as a diary reference of 1763 and a newspaper advertisement of 1768 attest.

Martha Logan died in Charleston in 1779. Martha Logan was buried in the family vault, since destroyed, in St. Phillip’s churchyard, Charleston.

Spring 19C


George Henry Boughton (American artist, 1833–1905) Spring Idyll


Spring - 15C Garden with lovers, dogs, music, + a well or a fish pond...


1460-67 Master ES German. The garden of love

A young woman and man sit on either side of what looks to be a garden well, accompanied by a bag-pipe-playing jester & the lady's small spotted dog & the gentleman's larger, perhaps a bit distainful dog. 

I am wondering if this is a traditional well or one of those fish-pond type fish stew ponds (where fish were purged of muddy water before cooking) to ensure a regular supply of meat/protein during the many fast days of the early Christian calendar.


17C Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677)


We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 

Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677) Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus; Print made by 1640. British Library.  An English lady with curly hair standing whole length to left with hands folded, holding flowers; wearing pearl earrings and necklace, rope of pearls over low-cut bodice, with ribbon at her breast.

The artist Hollar was born in 1607, the son of an upper middle-class civic official. He left his native Prague at age 20. He was almost blind in one eye but became a skilled artist. His 1st book of etchings was published in 1635, in Cologne, when Hollar was 28. The following year his work caught they eye of English art collector the Earl of Arundel who was visiting the continent. 

The English Earl convinced Hollar to become a part of his household, settling in England early in 1637. He left London for Antwerp in 1642, where he continued to work on a variety of projects for 10 years.  In 1652, he returned to England, working on a number of large projects for the publishers John Ogilby & William Dugdale. Hollar died in London in1677. By his life's end, he had produced nearly 3000 separate etchings.


Morning Madonna

.
Virgin and Child 1495-1505, a painting by Flemish Unknown Masters

In this blog, I try to begin each day with a painting of the Madonna & Child. It centers me; connects me to the past; & encourages me to post some of the religious paintings which were the core of early Western art.


Wednesday, March 25, 2015

Spring 15C in a Medieval Garden - playing cards, creating music, & making love...



 German Master bxg, c. 1470-90 Couple playing cards in a garden



 German Master bxg, c. 1470-90 Couple making music in a garden



 German Master bxg, c. 1470-90 Couple in love in a garden

Most Medieval gardens were secluded gardens, Hortus Conclusus, often representing a garden of earthly delights meant for recreation, romance, & relaxation. Gardens were enclosed within hedgerows, fences, or walls, like these, & they were filled with scented flowers & herbs.  Grass was treated as a flowery mead planted with low growing wild flowers. Turf seats, such as those we see here, were usually built against a wall with flowers planted in the grass.  


17C Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677)


We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 

Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677) Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus; Print made by 1640. British Library. An English lady with curly hair standing whole length to right, looking towards the viewer; wearing a ribbon in her hair, pearl earrings and necklace, ribbon tied above her waist around low-cut bodice, with scalloped lace-trimmed collar, fastened with brooch; her right hand in a muff, fur wound around her left hand;

The artist Hollar was born in 1607, the son of an upper middle-class civic official. He left his native Prague at age 20. He was almost blind in one eye but became a skilled artist. His 1st book of etchings was published in 1635, in Cologne, when Hollar was 28. The following year his work caught they eye of English art collector the Earl of Arundel who visiting the continent.  Hollar became a part of his household, settling in England early in 1637. He left London for Antwerp in 1642, where he continued to work on a variety of projects for 10 years.  In 1652, he returned to England, working on a number of large projects for the publishers John Ogilby & William Dugdale. Hollar died in London in1677. By his life's end, he had produced nearly 3000 separate etchings.


Morning Madonna


Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish Baroque painter, 1577-1640) Madonna on a Wreath 1619

In this blog, I try to begin each day with a painting of the Madonna & Child. It centers me; connects me to the past; & encourages me to post some of the religious paintings which were the core of early Western art.


Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Spring 17C - Carrying out the plants in pots & creating the geometric garden beds inside a fence...


1644 David Teniers the Younger (1610–1690) Spring


17C Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677)


Wenceslaus Hollar (Czech artist, 1607-1677)  'Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus. The severall 'Habits of Englishwomen, from the Nobilitie to the 'Country Woman, as they are in these times. 1640.'  An English lady with curly hair standing whole length to front, with head turned to look to right; wearing pearl earrings and necklace, low-cut bodice with scalloped lace collar and large jewel at her breast.

We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America.

The artist Hollar was born in 1607, the son of an upper middle-class civic official. He left his native Prague at age 20. He was almost blind in one eye but became a skilled artist. His 1st book of etchings was published in 1635, in Cologne, when Hollar was 28. The following year his work caught they eye of English art collector the Earl of Arundel who visiting the continent.  Hollar became a part of his household, settling in England early in 1637. He left London for Antwerp in 1642, where he continued to work on a variety of projects for 10 years.  In 1652, he returned to England, working on a number of large projects for the publishers John Ogilby & William Dugdale. Hollar died in London in1677. By his life's end, he had produced nearly 3000 separate etchings.


Morning Madonna


Benedetto Bonfigli (c. 1420–1496) Madonna and Child with Angels

In this blog, I try to begin each day with a painting of the Madonna & Child.  It centers me; connects me to the past; & encourages me to post some of the religious paintings which were the core of early Western art.


Monday, March 23, 2015

Spring 20C or 17C ?


Who painted this?  When?  What does the painting depict?  Cannot find it.  Please let me know.  Thank you very much in advance.

Perhaps 1930s.  Perhaps 300 years earlier.  I am guessing 1930s.  It seems to have elements that look right for a 16-17C date & elements that say pastiche.  Perhaps the garden looks too cartoon-like.


Spring 19C in the orchard


John Everett Millais (British artist, 1829-96) Spring


17C Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677)


We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 


Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677) Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus; Print made by 1640. British Library. An English lady with curly hair standing whole length to front, looking towards the viewer, holding her dress with her right hand, the left across her stomach; wearing pearl earrings and necklace, rope of pearls and jewel on the collar of her low-cut bodice, ribbon above her waist and gloves. 

The artist Hollar was born in 1607, the son of an upper middle-class civic official. He left his native Prague at age 20. He was almost blind in one eye but became a skilled artist. His 1st book of etchings was published in 1635, in Cologne, when Hollar was 28. The following year his work caught they eye of English art collector the Earl of Arundel who visiting the continent.  Hollar became a part of his household, settling in England early in 1637. He left London for Antwerp in 1642, where he continued to work on a variety of projects for 10 years.  In 1652, he returned to England, working on a number of large projects for the publishers John Ogilby & William Dugdale. Hollar died in London in1677. By his life's end, he had produced nearly 3000 separate etchings.