Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton (1757-1854), wife of Alexander Hamilton

Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton (1757-1854), wife of Alexander Hamilton, was born in Albany, N.Y., the 2nd daughter & 2nd of 14 children of Philip John Schuyler & his wife Catherine van Rensselaer. Her father, a member of the 4th generation of the Schuyler family in America, was a well-to-do landowner & entrepreneur who was prominent in New York state politics & served as a major general during the American Revolution. 

Schuyler Mansion in Albany, NY  The Schuyler Mansion is a historic house, right in the heart of Albany, NY, and was once the home of General Philip Schuyler. 

Philip Schuyler was from an influential Dutch family. He became the father-in-law of Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton was married in the Mansion (it was called “The Pasture” by General Schuyler) and spent a few years there, while he served in the New York legislature.  The Georgian style structure, constructed 1761-1765, was built on a bluff overlooking the Hudson River, and was originally situated on an 80-acre tract of land that included an orchard, formal garden, and a large working farm. Throughout the Schuyler family occupancy from 1763 to 1804, the mansion was the site of military meetings, political hobnobbing, elegant social affairs, and active family life. The wedding of daughter Elizabeth Schuyler to Alexander Hamilton took place in the house in 1780.

Elizabeth’s formative years were spent in Albany, still a frontier town. Her upbringing was typical of most young girls of wealthy and socially prominent families at that time. Tutored informally at home, she had only rudimentary schooling. A close friend descried her at about the age of 16 as a “Brunette with…dark lovely eyes” & “the finest tempered girl in the world.”

Detail of Schuyler's property in 1794. The orchards, fences, and formal garden depicted here were developed during Elizabeth Schuyler's childhood. Detail taken from Simeon DeWitt's "Plan of the City of Albany," 1794.

While visiting an aunt, Mrs. John Cochran, in Morristown, N.J., during the winter of 1779-80, Elizabeth Schuyler met Alexander Hamilton, then an aide-de-camp to General Washington, & after a brief courtship the couple were engaged. 

The Schuyler-Hamilton House, 5 Olyphant Place, Morristown, NJ 

The Schuyler-Hamilton House was the home of Dr Jabez Campfield, Revolutionary War doctor who, with his wife Sarah Ward, moved from his native Newark to Morristown in 1765, when he purchased this house.  It had been enlarged by 1779, when he lent the property to General Washington's personal physician, Dr John Cochran.  Mrs Cochran was the sister of Mrs Elizabeth Schuyler, wife of General Philip Schuyler of Albany, New York, all of whom, with children & servants, were billeted in this house at periods during 1779-1780.  It was here that Alexander Hamilton courted Betsy Schulyer during that winter.  They later married in Albany.

Although Hamilton, an indigent, illegitimate, recent immigrant from the West Indies, may have appeared an unlikely match for the daughter of one of New York’s most distinguished families, General Schuyler respected the young man’s brilliance & energy & heartily approved the marriage, which took place in Albany at the Schuyler mansion on Dec. 14, 1780. Over the next 22 years the Hamiltons had 8 children: Philip (1782), Angelica (1784), Alexander (1786), James Alexander (1788), John Church (1792), William Stephen (1797), Eliza (1799), & Philip (1802).

1787 Ralph Earl (1751-1801). Mrs. Alexander Hamilton. Elizabeth Schuyler 1757-1854

In 1782, Hamilton resigned from the army, qualified for the bar, & for the next 7 years he & his wife lived in either Albany or New York City. With his appointment in 1789 as the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, Mrs. Hamilton became a prominent member of the small but select social circle which centered around the important officials of the new government of the early republic, located first in New York then in Philadelphia. Hamilton resigned from President Washington’s cabinet in 1795, and resumed the practice of law in New York City. There the couple lived until 1802, when they moved to a country house in northern Manhattan called The Grange after Hamilton’s ancestral home in Scotland.

Alexander Hamilton (1755 or 1757-1804) by John Trumbull 1806

On July 12, 1804, her husband was mortally wounded in his famous duel with Aaron Burr. Although he was at the time of his death the most prominent lawyer in New York, Hamilton’s years in public service on a slender salary had left his large family virtually impoverished. 

Hamilton also had secretly paid monies to the husband of the woman he was having an affair with during the 1790s.   Mrs. Hamilton received urgently needed financial support from property willed to her by her father, who died just a few months after her husband on Nov. 18, 1804.  She also received property in Pennsylvania given to her by Timothy Pickering, a close friend & admirer of Hamilton’s.  In addition, a select number of her friends who provided her with funds with which to repurchase The Grange, which had been sold at public auction.

Despite her meager resources, she managed with the aid of friends, to provide an education for her sons, 3 of whom graduated from Columbia College & were admitted to the bar. But her consuming interest was her husband’s reputation, which she staunchly defended, dominated the remaining 50 hears of her life.  She carefully preserved every available scrap of his writing, but not a single letter which she wrote to him has survived.

With the help of her son James, she worked tirelessly to collect Hamilton’s papers for publication. Particularly intent on demonstrating his major contribution to George Washington’s Farwell Address, she successfully instituted legal proceedings against the federal government to recover Hamilton’s drafts of that famous state paper. 

To edit his writings she solicited candidate after candidate, most of whom were unable to share her commitment to Hamilton’s greatness. In John Church Hamilton, her 5th child, she finally found an author.  Over a period of 30 years John Church published a shelf-full of books on his father’s life, including a 7-volume biography & a 7-volume edition of Hamilton’s works.

In the years of her widowhood, Elizabeth Hamilton also took active part in the charitable work of Joana Graham Bethune & other New York women. When the New York Orphan Asylum Society was organized in 1806, Mrs. Hamilton became “Second Directress” (vice-president). In 1821, she became First Directress, or president, a post she retained until 1849, when she moved to Washington, D.C., to live with her widowed daughter Eliza Hamilton Holly. Living on to the age of 97, she died in Washington in 1854. She was buried next to her husband at Trinity churchyard in New York City.

This posting based in part on information from Notable American Women edited by Edward T James, Janet Wilson James, Paul S Boyer, The Belknap Press of Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1971

Alexander Hamilton's affair, extortion, & apology

Revelations about the treasury secretary's sex life forced him to choose between candor and his career.

By Angela Serratore From the Smithsonian Magazine July 25, 2013

Alexander Hamilton (1755 or 1757-1804) by John Trumbull  1806

In the summer of 1791, Alexander Hamilton received a visitor. Maria Reynolds, a 23-year-old blonde, came to Hamilton’s Philadelphia residence to ask for help. Her husband, James Reynolds, had abandoned her—not that it was a significant loss, for Reynolds had grossly mistreated her before absconding. Hamilton, just 34, was serving as secretary of the United States treasury and was himself a New Yorker; she thought he would surely be able to help her return to that city, where she could resettle among friends and relatives.

Hamilton was eager to be of service, but, he recounted later, it was not possible at the moment of her visit, so he arranged to visit her that evening, money in hand.  When he arrived at the Reynolds home, Maria led him into an upstairs bedroom. A conversation followed, at which point Hamilton felt certain that “other than pecuniary consolation would be acceptable” to Maria Reynolds.

Hamilton (whose wife and children were vacationing with relatives in Albany) and Maria Reynolds saw each other regularly throughout the summer and fall of 1791—until James Reynolds returned to the scene and instantly saw the profit potential in the situation. 

On December 15, Hamilton received an urgent note from his lover: I have not tim to tell you the cause of my present troubles only that Mr. has rote you this morning and I know not wether you have got the letter or not and he has swore that If you do not answer It or If he dose not se or hear from you to day he will write Mrs. Hamilton he has just Gone oute and I am a Lone I think you had better come here one moment that you May know the Cause then you will the better know how to act Oh my God I feel more for you than myself and wish I had never been born to give you so mutch unhappiness do not rite to him no not a Line but come here soon do not send or leave any thing in his power.

Two days later, Hamilton received a letter from James Reynolds that accused him of destroying a happy home and proposed a finacial solution: Its true its in your power to do a great deal for me, but its out of your power to do any thing that will Restore to me my Happiness again for if you should give me all you possess would not do it. god knowes I love the woman and wish every blessing may attend her, you have bin the Cause of Winning her love, and I Dont think I Can be Reconciled to live with Her, when I know I hant her love. now Sir I have Considered on the matter Serously. I have this preposial to make to you. give me the Sum Of thousand dollars and I will leve the town and take my daughter with me and go where my Friend Shant here from me and leve her to Yourself to do for her as you thing proper. I hope you wont think my request is in a view of making Me Satisfaction for the injury done me. for there is nothing that you Can do will compensate for it.

Rather than leave town (and his new mark), greedy James Reynolds allowed (or encouraged) the relationship to continue. A pattern was established in which Maria Reynolds (by this time likely complicit in her husband’s scheme) would write to Hamilton, entreating him to visit when her husband was out of the house: I have kept my bed those two days past but find my self much better at presant though yet full distreesed and shall till I see you fretting was the Cause of my Illness I thought you had been told to stay away from our house and yesterday with tears I my Eyes I begged Mr. once more to permit your visits and he told upon his honour that he had not said anything to you and that It was your own fault believe me I scarce knew how to believe my senses and if my seturation was insupportable before I heard this It was now more so fear prevents my saing more only that I shal be miserable till I se you and if my dear freend has the Least Esteeme for the unhappy Maria whos greateest fault Is Loveing him he will come as soon as he shall get this and till that time My breast will be the seate of pain and woe  P. S. If you cannot come this Evening to stay just come only for one moment as I shal be Lone Mr. is going to sup with a friend from New York.

After such meetings occurred, James Reynolds would dispatch a request for funds—rather than demand sums comparable to his initial request of $1,000 dollars (which Hamilton paid), he would request $30 or $40, never explicitly mentioning Hamilton’s relationship with Maria but referring often to Hamilton’s promise to be a friend to him.

James Reynolds, who had become involved in a dubious plan to purchase on the cheap the pension and back-pay claims of Revolutionary War soldiers, found himself on the wrong side of the law in November 1792, and was imprisoned for committing forgery. Naturally, he called upon his "old friend"  Hamilton, but the latter refused to help.  Reynolds, enraged, got word to Hamilton’s Republican rivals, that he had information of a sort that could bring down the Federalist hero.

James Monroe, accompanied by fellow Congressmen Frederick Muhlenberg and Abraham Venable, visited Reynolds in jail and his wife at their home and heard the tale of Alexander Hamilton, seducer and homewrecker, a cad who had practically ordered Reynolds to share his wife’s favors. What’s more, Reynolds claimed, the speculation scheme in which he’d been implicated also involved the treasury secretary. (Omitted were Reynolds’ regular requests for money from Hamilton.)  Political enemy he might have been, but Hamilton was still a respected government official, and so Monroe and Muhlenberg, in December 1792, approached him with the Reynolds’ story, bearing letters Maria Reynolds claimed he had sent her.

Aware of what being implicated in a nefarious financial plot could do to his career (and the fledgling nation’s economy), Hamilton admitted that he’d had an affair with Maria Reynolds, and that he’d been a fool to allow it (and the extortion) to continue. Satisfied that Hamilton was innocent of any wrongdoing beyond adultery, Monroe and Muhlenberg agreed to keep what they’d learned private. And that, Hamilton thought, was that.

James Monroe had a secret of his own, though.  While he kept Hamilton’s affair from the public, he did make a copy of the letters Maria Reynolds had given him and sent them to Thomas Jefferson, Hamilton’s chief adversary. The Republican clerk of the House of Representatives, John Beckley, may also have surreptitiously copied them.

In a 1796 essay, Hamilton (who had ceded his secretaryship of the treasury to Oliver Wolcott in 1795 and was acting as an adviser to Federalist politicians) impugned Jefferson’s private life, writing that the Virginian’s “simplicity and humility afford but a flimsy veil to the internal evidences of aristocratic splendor, sensuality, and epicureanism.” He would get his comeuppance in June 1797, when James Callender’s The History of the United States for 1796 was published.

Callender, a Republican and muckraker, had become privy to the contents of Hamilton’s letters to Reynolds (Hamilton would blame Monroe and Jefferson, though it is more likely Beckley was the source, though he had left his clerk’s position). Callender’s pamphlet alleged that Hamilton had been guilty of involvement in the speculation scheme and was more licentious than any moral person could imagine. “In the secretary’s bucket of chastity,” Callender asserted, “a drop more or less was not to be perceived.”

Callender’s accusations and his access to materials related to the affair left Hamilton in a tight spot—to deny all the charges would be an easily proven falsehood. The affair with Maria Reynolds could destroy his marriage, not to mention his hard-won social standing (he had married Elizabeth Schuyler, daughter of one of New York’s most prominent families, and a match many thought advantageous to Hamilton). But to be implicated in a financial scandal was, to Hamilton, simply unthinkable. As Secretary of the Treasury, he’d been the architect of early American fiscal policy. To be branded as corrupt would not only end his career, but also threaten the future of the Federalist Party.

Left with few other options, Hamilton decided to confess to his indiscretions with Maria Reynolds and use that confession as proof that on all other fronts, he had nothing to hide. But his admission of guilt would be far more revealing than anyone could have guessed.

Hamilton’s pamphlet Observations on Certain Documents had a simple purpose: in telling his side of the story and offering letters from James and Maria Reynolds for public review, he would argue that he had been the victim of an elaborate scam, and that his only real crime had been an “irregular and indelicate amour.” To do this, Hamilton started from the beginning, recounting his original meeting with Maria Reynolds and the trysts that followed. The pamphlet included revelations sure to humiliate Elizabeth Hamilton—that he and Maria had brought their affair into the Hamilton family home, and that Hamilton had encouraged his wife to remain in Albany; so that he could see Maria without explanation.

1787 Ralph Earl (1751-1801). Mrs. Alexander Hamilton. Elizabeth Schuyler

Letters from Maria to Hamilton were breathless and full of errors (“I once take up the pen to solicit The favor of seing again oh Col hamilton what have I done that you should thus Neglect me”). How would Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton react to being betrayed by her husband with such a woman?

Still, Hamilton pressed on in his pamphlet, presenting a series of letters from both Reynoldses that made Hamilton, renowned for his cleverness, seem positively simple. On May 2, 1792, James Reynolds forbade Hamilton from seeing Maria ever again; on June 2, Maria wrote to beg Hamilton to return to her; a week after that, James Reynolds asked to borrow $300, more than double the amount he usually asked for. (Hamilton obliged.)

Hamilton, for his part, threw himself at the mercy of the reading public:This confession is not made without a blush. I cannot be the apologist of any vice because the ardor of passion may have made it mine. I can never cease to condemn myself for the pang which it may inflict in a bosom eminently entitled to all my gratitude, fidelity, and love. But that bosom will approve, that, even at so great an expense, I should effectually wipe away a more serious stain from a name which it cherishes with no less elevation than tenderness. The public, too, will, I trust, excuse the confession. The necessity of it to my defence against a more heinous charge could alone have extorted from me so painful an indecorum.

While the airing of his dirty laundry was surely humiliating to Hamilton (and his wife, whom the Aurora, a Republican newspaper, asserted must have been just as wicked to have such a husband), it worked—the blackmail letters from Reynolds dispelled any suggestion of Hamilton’s involvement in the speculation scheme.

Still, Hamilton’s reputation was in tatters. Talk of further political office effectively ceased. He blamed Monroe, whom he halfheartedly tried to bait into challenging him to a duel. (Monroe refused.) This grudge would be carried by Elizabeth Hamilton, who, upon meeting Monroe before his death in 1831, treated him coolly on her late husband’s behalf. She had, by all accounts, forgiven her husband, and would spend the next 50 years trying to undo the damage of Hamilton’s last decade of life.

Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804) and Aaron Burr (1756-1836) Duel in Weehawken, New Jersey.

Hamilton’s fate, of course, is well-known, though in a way the Reynolds affair followed him to his last day. Some time before the publication of his pamphlet, Hamilton’s former mistress Maria Reynolds sued her husband for divorce. The attorney that guided her through that process was Aaron Burr.

Aaron Burr 1756-1836 by John Vanderlyn (1775-1852) 1802

Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton, Penguin Books, 2005;

Hamilton, Alexander. Observations on Certain Documents, 1797;

Callender, James. History of the United States in 1796, 1796;

Brodie, Fawn McKay. Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History, W.W. Norton & Co., 1975;

Collins, Paul. Duel With the Devil: The True Story of How Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr Teamed Up to Take on America’s First Sensational Murder Mystery, Crown, 2013;

McCraw, Thomas K., The Founders and Finance: How Hamilton, Gallatin, and Other Immigrants Forged a New Economy, Belknap Press, 2012;

Rosenfeld, Richard M. American Aurora: A Democratic-Republican Returns, St. Martin’s Griffin, 1998.

From the Smithsonian Magazine July 25, 2013

My favorite landscape from Jean Édouard Vuillard 1868-1940

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Breton Landscape, Saint-Jacut

Flowers for you from Jean Édouard Vuillard 1868-1940

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Flowers 1910

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Fleurs (1904)

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Flowers 1906

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Bouquet of Pansies, Myosotis and Daisies in front of a Carafe, on a Table 1900

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Anemones in a Jug 1902

A little gossip - Pregnant Elizabeth Vernon (Shakespeare's lover?) marries Earl of Southampton (Shakespeare's lover or Elizabeth's son?)

Elizabeth Vernon, Countess of Southampton (1572-1655) attributed to Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger (1561-1636)

In 1999, a German professor of English, Hildegard Hammerschmidt - Hummel, proposed an intriguing, but highly tenuous, theory about Elizabeth Vernon (one of the Queen's chief ladies-in-waiting) mainly based on a sonnet whose authorship remains debated. She claims that the sonnet was written by William Shakespeare, & that additional evidence from portraits show that Elizabeth Vernon Wriothesley was Shakespeare's lover. Her eldest daughter Penelope was, according to this theory, a child of Shakespeare. If this were true, the late Lady Diana Spencer would be a descendant of William Shakespeare. (See: Hildegard Hammerschmidt-Hummel: Das Geheimnis um Shakespeares 'Dark Lady'. Dokumentation einer Enthüllung Darmstadt: Primus-Verlag 1999)

1590 Elizabeth Vernon, Countess of Southampton (1572-1655)

And so the story goes -- Elizabeth Wriothesley (née Vernon), Countess of Southampton (1572–1655) was one of the ladies-in-waiting to Elizabeth I of England in the later years of her reign. She was born in Hodnet, Shropshire, England to Sir John Vernon of Hodnet & Elizabeth Devereux.

Elizabeth Vernon, Countess of Southampton (1572-1655), probably dressed for the coronation of James I of England in 1603 in white with her countess's coronet & mantle

In August of 1598, Elizabeth married Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, the patron of William Shakespeare. The hasty marriage occurred, after Elizabeth learned that her young lady-in-waiting was pregnant. Upon discovering this, the Queen had both Elizabeth & her new groom locked in Fleet Prison. After their release, they were never again to be allowed in the company of extremely displeased Queen Elizabeth.

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573-1624), Detail

Another favorite of Elizabeth I, Henry Wriothesley, (1573–1624), was the only known patron of Shakespeare, who dedicated Venus and Adonis to him (1593). Southampton's openly tempestuous relationship with the Queen culminated in his involvement in the Earl of Essex's rebellion in 1601. Condemned to death by Elizabeth when the rebellion failed, his punishment was commuted to life imprisonment; and he was released by the new King James I, after Elizabeth's death. Southampton was known at court for his flamboyant appearance, particularly his striking long auburn hair.

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573-1624), by Nicholas Hilliard

Here the tenuous theory of Elizabeth Vernon actually being Shakespeare's lover finds some competition. Some note that Shakespeare’s sonnets often seem to be directly addressed to the passionate Wriothesley, who was the patron not just of Shakespeare but also of a whole group of writers & scholar–poets, including Thomas Nashe, John Florio, & George Wither. He was a close friend of Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex. In an unusual coincidence, Elizabeth Vernon was Essex’s cousin.

The Tower Portrait of Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573-1624), 1603 by John Decritz the Elder 

Shakespeare's first 17 sonnets are said by some Shakespeare scholars to refer to Southampton. There a youth of rank & wealth is admonished to marry & beget a son so that "his fair house" may not fall into decay. Southampton was then unmarried, had vast possessions, & was the sole male representative of his family, his father having died when he was only 8. In Sonnet 20, Shakespeare describes Southampton as the "master-mistress of passion" writing that Dame Nature originally intended Southampton to be a woman–but falling in love with her–turned her into a man instead. In Sonnet 53, Shakespeare wonders how beautiful Southampton would look dressed as Helen of Troy.

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573-1624)

Documents seem to show that Elizabeth Vernon actually was emotionally involved with Wriothesley. Courtier Rowland Whyte wrote in 1595, "My Lord of Southampton do with too much familiarity court the fair Mistress Vernon." In 1598, Whyte commented, "I hear my Lord Southampton goes...to France and so onward in his travels; which course of his doth extremely grieve his mistress that passes her time in weeping and lamenting." And he reports again a few weeks later, "My Lord of Southampton is gone and left behind him a very desolate Gentlewoman that almost wept out her fairest eyes." Upon Southampton's return to England, he & Elizabeth Vernon were married. (See Letters and Memorials of State. Edited by Arthur Collins. 1746)

1618 Elizabeth Vernon, Countess of Southampton (1572-1655)

To complicate matters even further, some scholars believe the Prince Tudor theory that Southampton was the natural son of Edward de Vere Earl of Oxford & Queen Elizabeth. Besides the clues in Shakespeare's sonnets, they also note that in the 1603 portrait of Southampton in the Tower, the impresa in the upper right corner depicts a connection to royalty. It depicts a castle with swans swimming in the unusually "troubled waters" of the moat surrounding it. The swan is traditionally a royal symbol, & it is mute.

The young Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573-1624)

When he finished his 4 years at St John's College, Cambridge in 1589 at age 16, he was presented formally to Queen Elizabeth at court. The queen had her then favorite, the Earl of Essex, take the young man under his wing. In 1592, Southampton was among the noblemen who accompanied Elizabeth to Oxford. A year later, Southampton was mentioned for nomination as a knight of the garter; at his age, an unprecedented compliment outside the circle of the sovereign's kinsmen. In 1595, he distinguished himself in the queen's presence in honor of the 37th anniversary of her reign. George Peel, in his account of the scene in his "Anglorum Feriæ," referred to him as the most chivalrous Bevis of Southampton.

1620 Elizabeth Vernon, Countess of Southampton (1572-1655) perhaps by Dutch artist Paul van Somer (c.1576–1621).

And so, Elizabeth Vernon did get pregnant. She did marry the Earl of Southampton. She did have a baby girl.  Some postulate that she may have been Shakespeare's secret love, & that her baby may have been Shakespeare's. Others speculate that Southampton may have been Shakespeare's love, & that Southampton may have been the secret son of Queen Elizabeth, the Prince Tudor. In this scenario, if the baby was Southampton's, it may have been the Queen's grandchild.

1622 Elizabeth Vernon, Countess of Southampton by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger (1561-1636)

Jean Édouard Vuillard 1868-1940 paints 1890s interiors

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) 1893 The Studio or The Suitor

Jean-Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940) was a French painter best known for his unique & exquisite interior paintings, & for his association with the artist group Les Nabis, both of which blossomed in the 1890s. Vuillard's intimate interiors were inspired by the 60 years, he spent with his mother in a succession of apartments in Paris, watching her at work as a dressmaker. The son of a retired sea captain, Jean-Edouard Vuillard moved with his family to Paris at the age of 10. After winning a scholarship, he trained at the French Academy of Fine Arts, where he met Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947).   Vuillard's mother ran her dressmaking studio from home, giving her son ample opportunity to immerse himself in the colors, patterns, materials & shapes of her dress fabrics. He recorded scenes of  industrious activity among the dressmakers, and he was also a keen observer of the interplay between family & friends. The rooms he shared for so long with his mother became the set pieces of his art - lovingly recorded in intricate mosaics of dappled color & sensitive brushwork. His 1890s works are among the finest examples of domestic interior paintings.  After the death of his mother in 1928, Vuillard finally married & settled in La Baule, where he died in 1940.

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) The Dressmaking Studio I

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) 1893 Seated Woman, Cup of Coffee

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) The Dressmaking Studio II

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Les Couturières 1890

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) L'atelier de couture 1892

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Woman Mending 1891

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) The Blue Sleeve 1893

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) The Widow’s Visit (also known as The Conversation)  1898

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Madame Vuillard Peeling Vegetables  1895

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Madame Vuillard with a Pink Cup  1893

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Mother and Sister of the Artist, 1895

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Portrait of Marie Vuillard 1890

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Marie at the Balcony Railing 1893

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) The Mumps 1892

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Family Dinner c 1891

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940)  Breakfast at Madame Vuillard’s 1895

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940)  Femme couchée de dos vers 1891

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) In front of a Tapestry, 1899

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Interior (also known as Marie Leaning over Her Work)  1892-1893

  Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Sleeping Baby 1898

  Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Breakfast 1893

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Seated Woman Dressed in Black 1893

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) The Drawer, c. 1892

  Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Madame Vuillard Preparing French Beans, 1898

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Breakfast 1894

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Gravy Boat and Napkin Rings 1896

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) The White Room 1899

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Young Girl, the Hand on a Doorknob, 1891

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) The Nurse 1894

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Woman in Blue (also known as At the Ransons 1895

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Broom in the Yard at 346 Rue Saint-Honoré, 1895

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Madame Vuillard Cousant, 1895

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) The Stitch  1893

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Interior with Red Bed (also known as The Bridal Chamber) 1893

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Woman by the Window (1898)

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Madame Vuillard Reading the Newspaper 1898

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Mother and Daughter at the Table 1892

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) On the Sofa (also known as In the White Room) 1892

 Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) The Yellow Curtain 1893

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Woman in Blue with a Child 1899

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Woman Sweeping 1899

Jean Édouard Vuillard (French artist, 1868-1940) Madame Vuillard arranging her hair 1899-1900